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Несортированные статьи и заметки

Paleontolog: Сюда сбрасываются статьи и заметки, которые ещё не нашли своей темы (или перевода). Теги раздела: [Лекции (язык)] - в теме собраны лекции на некотором языке. [Конспект] - в теме собраны статьи, представляющие собой конспект какой-то книги или каких-то лекций. [Цитата] - выдержка из чьего-то материала. [Практика] - здесь участники форума могут публиковать примеры выполнения писательских упражнений.

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Paleontolog: https://www.yeahwrite.org/?p=445 Архетипы ролей. Archetypes are patterns of human behaviour, symbolized by standard types of characters. They allow readers to get a general impression of the sort of person a character is, without elaborate description. However, this results in flat characters if you don’t elaborate with contradictions,archetypes surprising traits and so on. It’s a handy guideline to keep in mind to ensure you have a rich cast of characters, rather than a lot of similar characters. Remember that this is just the starting point for a character that fulfills a certain role in a story. Archetypes are often confused with stock characters. However, stock characters are defined by their personality, behaviour, and appearance: the neighborhood gossip, the town drunk, or the school bully. Archetypes are defined by their purpose or role in a story. The role archetypes Heroes Central figures in stories. Everyone is the hero of his or her own myth. Shadows Villains and enemies, perhaps the enemy within (his possibilities or his potential evil). Can be other kinds of repression, such as repressed grief, anger, frustration or creativity that is dangerous if it doesn’t have an outlet. It can represent the hero’s opposite or the worst possible outcome. Mentor / Coach / Teacher The hero’s guide or guiding principles. Often an old man or woman, offering invaluable advice and guidance. Sometimes the mentor provides an essential tool for the protagonist to solve the story-worthy problem. Mentors can have their own objectives. There are different kinds of mentors, such as straight forward, protective, tricksters and so on. Herald One who brings the Call to Adventure. Could be a person or an event. The herald appears when there is a major change coming, often just before the protagonist crosses into another world. Threshold Guardian The forces that stand in the way at important turning points, including jealous enemies, professional gatekeepers, or your own fears and doubts. The guardian tests the protagonist and then permits or prevents him from going further into the journey. They usually test strengths, wits or fortitude and function as an obstacle. They usually belong to the villain’s side of the story, but can be good or neutral. Shapeshifters In supernatural stories these are usually werewolves or such creatures. In ‘real’ life this can be any thing that represents change. The way other people (or our perceptions of them) look at him keeps changing. Can also represent the opposite sex, the way people can be two-faced. Tricksters Clowns and mischief-makers. Our own mischievous subconscious, urging us to change. They also provide comical relief, using their wits. Allies Characters who help the hero through the change. Sidekicks, buddies, girlfriends who advise the hero through the transitions of life.

Paleontolog: https://www.yeahwrite.org/?p=1575 Архетипы по Карлу Юнгу The Archetypes According to Carl Jung Critical ParentJung archetypes unsupportive unloving judgmental restrictive distant cold The perfect Child Does everything right obedient dutiful Little Professor Child who makes parents proud by being mature and bright Femme Fatale Sexy siren flirt Ladies Man Hunk macho stud Amazon woman Capable independent aggressive self-sufficient invincible Witch/Bitch Aggressive cold bitchy manipulative Wallflower Shy quiet low self-esteem insecure Dictator Boss, ordering people around never pleased demanding insensitive ruthless Rebel Nonconformist stubborn rule-breaker Big Shot Wants the best demanding braggart Madonna Mother figure caretaker homebody idealized woman Victim Waits to be taken care of to be rescued self-pitying ain’t it awful Little princess Spoiled wants to be waited on doted expects others to cater Care Taker Charitable helps others all the time takes care of everybody People pleaser no need of his own wants people to like him pleases people (doh) Joker prankster practical jokes cut-up trouble mischievous attention seeker Villain angry manipulator revenger avenger killer Hero/ heroine overcomes struggles dragon slayer heroic deed saves the day Perfectionist OCD up tight driven Warrior saves the day fights off the enemy super hero Rescuer Tried to point lost souls to right path play Florence Nightingale takes in stray dogs, cats and people Martyr What I could have should have done self-pity self-sacrificing doesn’t let you forget it Critic beats you up needles you judgmental negative Vulnerable little child Helpless crying hyper-sensitive dependent Shadow Self filled with lust greed rage dark side jealousy revengeful self you don’t want to admit murderous feelings dark thoughts Wise higher self creative imaginative spiritual lofty intuitive instinctual

Paleontolog: https://www.yeahwrite.org/?p=1758 - вопросы, которые время от времени следует задавать себе о персонажах. Questions about characters to ask yourself Do your characters evolve out of point of view and style? Does your protagonist fail to grow, experience changes in attitude and fortune? Does the protagonist fail to affect other characters? Are any characters not explored fully enough? Are any minor characters overdeveloped? Are the relationships among the characters unclear? Do you need to clarify the underlying motives of your characters? Do you present characters too much through description and commentary? Do you make a claim for a character that you cannot demonstrate? Do you need to change the functions of certain characters? Do you need to combine two or more characters into one? Do you depend too much upon stereotypes? Are you inconsistent in the presentation of your characters? Have you taken enough care in the selection of names for your characters? Does your story need one or more new characters? Have you given readers the wrong impression about any of your characters? --- Поскольку количество персонажей, их роли и конфликты находятся в тесной взаимосвязи с сюжетом и доказываемой идеей, я бы добавил к этим вопросам следующие: 1. Насколько незаменим персонаж в своей роли в системе внешних конфликтов? 2. Как действия и конфликты персонажа (или группы персонажей) способствуют доказательству / опроверганию идеи произведения? 3. Как сказывается уделение внимания персонажу на темпе подачи сюжета и вовлечённости читателя в происходящее? 4. Как изменится подача идеи, если сдвинуть персонажа на другой план / поменять роль / изменить конфликты? 5. Как меняется тон повествования при смене роли / внешних и внутренних конфликтов персонажа? Вообще, крайне полезно время от времени (в процессе работы над структурой произведения) перерисовывать систему конфликтов. Иной раз получается, что необходимый ранее персонаж или группа персонажей уже перестали быть нужны для истории, а то и вовсе вредят стройности повествования, так что от них нужно избавиться.

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